The OpenLux database follows the “LuxLeaks” scandal of 2014 when the offshore tax structures of Amazon AMZN -0.9%, Apple AAPL -0.7%, Deutsche Bank and other corporates were laid bare in documents leaked from PwC Luxembourg.

Scrutiny of tech giants registered in Luxembourg has only grown since. In 2017 the European Commission ruled that Luxembourg gave illegal tax benefits to Amazon worth around €250 million ($301 million) in 2017. Now, governments in the U.K. and EU are pressing these tech companies to pay more tax in their own countries.

Luxembourg denies it is a tax haven, however. “Luxembourg provides no favorable tax regime for multinational firms, nor digital companies, which have to abide by the same rules and legislation as any other company in Luxembourg,” the government said in a statement.

However, there is now so much financial activity in Luxembourg that half the workers in the Grand Duchy are foreign, with many having to commute to work from neighboring France, Germany or Belgium.

Le Monde estimates there are a quarter as many companies registered in the Grand Duchy than there are residents, and a third of these are owned by non-Luxembourgish individuals.

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More often than not they will be owned by French nationals, the newspaper says. Nearly 15,000 wealthy French residents own companies in Luxembourg, which together are worth at least €100 billion ($121 billion) or 4% of France’s GDP, it says. “It’s almost as if Luxembourg owned small pieces of France.”